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Sources: The Library of Congress Country Studies; CIA World Factbook
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    The reform program seems to have followed a logical sequence, building a base of support in the countryside, where issues and institutions were more clear-cut, and then moving on to the more diverse and politically complex urban areas. As the reform program began to confront major obstacles in this setting, the reform leaders, led by Deng Xiaoping, began to emphasize the need to extend reform to political structures in order to make political institutions and processes more supportive of the modernization program.

    The need for further political reform was underlined by the continuing difficulty in implementing the factory-director responsibility system, a major goal of the reform program for 1986. Party cadres had already lost the privilege of life tenure and been subjected to the rigors and requirements of the party rectification programs. They would not easily forfeit operational control of economic enterprises.

    Data as of July 1987

    NOTE: The information regarding China on this page is re-published from The Library of Congress Country Studies and the CIA World Factbook. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of China THE THIRD WAVE OF REFORM, BEGINNING IN 1986 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about China THE THIRD WAVE OF REFORM, BEGINNING IN 1986 should be addressed to the Library of Congress and the CIA.

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Revised 10-Nov-04
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