Hasidism

| Profile | History | Beliefs | Main Communities | Women in Hasidism | Links | Bibliography



    I. Group Profile

    1. Name: Hasidism

    2. Founder: Ba'al Shem Tov, "Master of the Good Name" or Besht.

    3. Date of Birth: 1698

    4. Birth Place: On the Russian-Polish border 1 .

    5. Year Founded:

      Founded in the eighteenth century by Ba'al Shem Tov as an alternative to traditional rabbinical Judaism.

    6. Sacred or Revered Texts:

      The Torah and the Talmud are the main religious references used in Hasidism. The most important aspect of the Torah is written in the Ten Commandments.

    7. Cult or Sect: Negative sentiments are typically implied when the concepts "cult" and "sect" are employed in popular discourse. Since the Religious Movements Homepage seeks to promote religious tolerance and appreciation of the positive benefits of pluralism and religious diversity in human cultures, we encourage the use of alternative concepts that do not carry implicit negative stereotypes. For a more detailed discussion of both scholarly and popular usage of the concepts "cult" and "sect," please visit our Conceptualizing "Cult" and "Sect" page, where you will find additional links to related issues.

    8. Size of Group:

      Due to the Hasidic high birthrate of about five or six children per family, and the growing number of new followers, the Hasidic population has doubled in the last twenty years 2 . It is estimated that there are 250,000 Hasidim in the world. Hasidim live throughout Europe in the countries of England, Belgium, Switzerland, Austria, and France. There is also a presumable population in South America, Australia, and Israel 3 . Of the 250,000 Hasidim in the world, 200,000 live in the United States, with 100,000 residing in the state of New York State alone. The majority of American Hasidim reside in Brooklyn, particularly in the neighborhoods of Crown Heights, Williamsburg, and Boro Park.

      Lubavitch Hasidism is the most visible Hasidic group. Crown Heights (in New York) is the capital of Lubavitch Hasidism, claiming some 15,000 members.

    | Profile | History | Beliefs | Main Communities | Women in Hasidism | Links | Bibliography


    II. History of the Group

      The Hebrew word Hasid, from Hasidism, means "pious" and describes one's spiritual devotion that extends beyond the requirements of Jewish religious law 4 . The development of Hasidism arose from several movements that took place in Ukraine and Poland. In 1648 there were Cossack massacres led by Bogdan Chmielnicki that murdered thousands of Jews. In addition to death tools, Jewish communities had to worry about taxation, support for widows, orphans, and the disabled. This led to a class divide in the Polish Jewish community 5 . Times were also troubled by foreign invasions, peasant uprisings, a declining central government, and conflict between Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox Christians 6 .

      Hasidism would have continued to be a force in contemporary life had it not been for Nazism 7 . A majority of the Hasidim of Eastern and Central Europe were among the six million Jews who died in the Holocaust. The fate of Jews depended on geography and the number of years they were under direct Nazi denomination. Jews close to the Russian border could flee to safety from the Soviet Union 8 .

      The wealthy Jews and the Talmudic scholars who led the communities often did not distribute the tax burdens fairly. The Rabbinic leadership, led by Shabbetai Zvi, did not protest about this situation, which lead to discreditation among the Jewish community 9 . Their Rabbinic learning continued to focus on Talmudic study, which provided little spiritual fulfillment. This lead to the popularity of magic and wonder-workers who would perform miracles through magical manipulations of the names of God (Ba'alie Shem). Faith in demons, incantations, and amulets became widespread 10 .

      The term Shem Tov is usually employed in the sense of "a good reputation." The word Ba'al literally means master, often with the connotation of owner or possessor 11 . Many men in Jewish history were referred to interchangeably as Ba'al shem (Master of the Name), Ba'al shemot or Ba'al shem tov. The "tov," or "good," is not essential to the title. What is essential is the "shem," the name 12 .

      He was called "Ba'al Shem Tov," (or Besht) and was understood as "Good Master of the Name." This slight interpretation was needed because while other Ba'alie Shem were sorcerers who worked with magic, Ba'al Shem Tov used his powers for the good of spirituality. He had a niche for himself as a spritiual guide and healer in the Polish- Ukranian town of Miedzyboz 13 . The new movement spread rapidly among Eastern European Jewry when leading disciples of the Ba'al Shem Tov won followers of their own and formed separate communities apart from other Orthodox Jews. The model for these new communities was established by the court of the Ba'al Shem Tov's chief disciple, Reb Dov Ber, (1740-1772), the learned and charismatic Maggid (Preacher) of Mezritch, a town in Volhynia 14 .

      Ba'al Shem Tov was born in 1698 on the Russian-Polish border 15 . He was a poor student who worked as a teacher's assistant, leading children to and from school. He eventually became sexton of the synagogue and spent nights studying the Kabbalah. In 1718 he married his first wife, but she soon died afterwards. He then moved to Brody, Galicia, where his brother's embarrassment of marrying the sister of a local Rabbi, forced him to move again to a remote Carpathian village 16 .

      He gained the reputation of a ba'al shem by his expertise in medicinal herbs. At the age of 36, in 1736, the Besht publicly revealed his mission. This signified his acceptance to teach religious teachings 17 . The new movement appeared to threaten the stability of the Jewish community (Mintz, 10). The first Jewish work, Toledot Ya'Akov Yosef , written by Jacob Joseph of Polonnoye, challenged the integrity of the religious functionaries -- the rabbi, the shohet (ritutal healer), and the hazan (cantor) -- for their narrow concerns and their failure to protect the purity of the community.

      Ba'al Shem Tov spread his teaching by means of simple stories and parables that appealed to Jews. He has been compared to Jesus and other charismatic leaders for his sole purpose of stressing the importance of people with God. The Besht left no writings, but there are many Hasidic tales about his life and teachings 19 . His teachings involved charismatic leadership from a rural following, and stressed new teachings that emphasized the closeness between the zaddik (holy man) and his disciples, the Hasidim 20 .

      Despite opposition to Hasidism, Hasidic teachings were carried to communities throughout Eastern and Central Europe by Hasidic disciples who had witnessed the new ways and the new miracles at first hand at the court of Dov Ber and later at the Courts of other Rebbes 21 . Hasidic ways of piety, humility, and enthusiasm, infused with kabbalistic insights, transformed religious practices and religious authority (Mintz, 10).

      While Hasidism spread throughout the world, the majority of its followers presently reside in the United States. The history of Hasidim and Hasidic communities in North America began in the late nineteenth century. As early as 1875, Rabbi Joshua Segal, known as the "Sherpser Rov," arrived in New York City and became the "Chief Rabbi" of some twenty Hasidic congregations known as "Congregations of Israel, Men of Poland and Austria." By the sixties, the Hasidic population in New York was believed to be between 40,000-50,000 people. With Satmar at 1,300 families and Stolin, Bobov, Lkausenberg, and Lubavitch having between 100 to 500 families between them 22 . Today Hasidism continues to grow strong, and remains an organization that upholds its beliefs.

      There are also different "types" of Hasidim from style of dress to different philosophical and political focuses. Some of the different types are Lubovitcher, Bobover, Belzer, Satmar, Vishnitzers, Gerers, Klausenbergers, Skverers and Bratslavers.

      Daily Life of a Hasidic Jew :

      Hasidic courts became dynamic courts, each with a Rebbe as the leader. The central structures of the hoyf (court) were the houseof the Rebbe, the besmedresh (bet ha-midrash: the house of study and synagogue), a yeshivah, and a mikvah 23 . Living nearby were the resident followers of the Rebbe. The morning began with purification rites. The most dedicated Rebbes spent much of the day in learning and prayer. When the Hasidim visited their Rebbe or listened to his toyre (teachings), they sensed that they were in the presence of someone standing in the Heavenly Court 24 .

      Continuing the Lineage of Hasidism :

      With Ba'al Shem Tov's death in 1760, the framework of Hasidism and possibility for future leadership was not defined. After disagreement among the disciples, the Tzaddik movement was created 25 . The most recognized leaders of the first generation of Tzaddikism consisted of Rabbi Dov Baer of Meseritz, Rabbi Jacob Joseph of Polnoye, Rabbi Shneiur Zalman of Ladi, Rabbi Nahman of Bratslav, Rabbi Levi Isaac of Berditshev, and Rabbi Menahem Mendel of Kotzk. Since the heirs of the Tzaddik were sons of the predecessors, they didn't have many qualifications. The rise of tzaddikism , was seen by critics as having debased Hasidism 26 . As the number of Rebbes multiplied, so too did complaints of abuse of their position and power. Some Rebbes acquired notoriety among their opponents for opportunism and materialism.

      Israel Friedman of Rizhin (1798-1850), the great-grandson of Dov Ber of Mezritch. During his lifetime became preeminent among Ukrainian tzaddikim and the most controversial figure in the Hasidic world. Visitors of Rizhin and later to Sadagora in Bukovina found the Rebbe seated on a throne, as elegantly dressed as a Russian noble 27 . He also had a hat laced with gold embroidery.

      Critics of Hasidism frequently cited the customs of the Rebbe of Rizhin and derided his excesses. To his loyal followers, however, the Rizhiner's display of wealth was a symbol expressing the nobility of their homage.

      Reb Israel, the Rizhiner Rebbe, had established one of the great Hasidic family synasties, first in Rizhin and then in towns such as Sadagora, Husiatin, Tchortkov, Shtefanest, and Leovo as his five sons established courts of their own 28 . In 1845, after spending twenty-two months in prison, accused of ordering the murder of two Jewish informers, Rizhiner Rebbe received permission from the Austro-Hungarian emperor to settle in the town of Sadagora. When the Rizhiner Rebbe died in 1850, his eldest son, Reb Shalom Jaseph, survived him by only one year, and his second son, Reb Abraham Jacob, remained in Sadagora and was known as the Sadagora Rebbe. When Reb Abraham Jacob died in 1883, he left two sons, Isaac and Israel 29 .

      When Reb Isaac died in 1917, he was succeeded by his son Reb Mordchei Shlomo Friedman. His social and economic prospects were poor because he was the youngest of the Rizhin dynasty.

      Ba'al Shem Tov's great grandson Rabbi Nahman of Bratslav founded the Breslov Movement . Breslov comes from the town of Breslov where the now "Rebbe" Nachman spent most of the last eight years of his life. A distinctive practice in the Breslov movement was hisboddidus when means "to make oneself be in solitude" 30 . It is a personalized style of prayer that is practiced along with continual worship in the synagogue. He stressed the importance of soul-searching and that "all Jews could reach the same level as he."

      Breslov Hasidism today doesn't have a Rebbe, and each individual is free to go to any Jewish guide or teacher. But there are a number of mailing groups, which maintains mailing lists for the followers 31 .

      Rebbe Manachem Mendel Schneerson is the best known contemporary leader. He was a descendant of Shneur Zalman of Lyadi. He died in the summer of 1994 at the age of ninety-two. His creation of Chabad Houses worked dynamically to bring back Jews 32 . Rebbe Shneerson wrote the Tanya, a widely read mystical book. Several of Schneerson's followers labeled him the Messiah.

    | Profile | History | Beliefs | Main Communities | Women in Hasidism | Links | Bibliography


    III. Beliefs of the Group

      The uniqueness of Hasidism is that it not only stresses teachings, but a way of life that focuses on the importance of community 33 . The personal attitude of faith works to form community. The teachings are carried on by their life. Each leads an individual life that forms community 34 .

      "I have come into the world," maintained the Besht, "to show man how to live by three precepts: love of God, love of Israel, and love of the Torah" 35 . According to the Besht, there are no divisions between the sacred and the secular, and there are no veils between Man and his Creator. "A man's every act must reflect the worship of the Creator" 36 . Ba'al Shem Tov has three important principles that pertained to his teachings. His theory of emotion over intellect held the importance of God's emmanence, joy, and prayer. The highest Hasidic importance was of devekut, which means a communion or attachment to God. To Ba'al Shem Tov, it should not be seen only as a means to magic or the mystic, but for religious observance.

      Ba'al Shem Tov taught through his parables and put an emphasis on the idea of having a pure heart and worshipping God. Joy was also very important in having a good relationship with God. Ba'al Shem Tov also said that depression was something that was negative and only altered the communication that is needed between Jews and the Creator 37 .

      Realizing that there is an ever loving Creator should lead to feelings of joy. Ba'al Shem Tov wanted to prove an alternative way or worship that was different from the negative antics beset by Polish and Russian Jewry. Ba'al Shem Tov's theory was that feeling good about yourself meant that you felt good about God and your relationship with Him. He encouraged joy through activities of singing, dancing, story-telling, drinking, etc.

      Another important doctrine was worshipping through prayer. The two main ideas surrounding this phenomenon are:

      1. Devekus ("Clinging," constant devotion): The unceasing consciousness of God's presence.
      2. Hislahavus ("Bursting into flame," ecstatic enthusiasm): The experience of spiritual exultation as the soul is elevated towards God.

      Here is a list of other important teachings Ba'al Shem Tov taught through his parables and he put an emphasis on the idea of having a pure heart and worshipping God. Joy was also very important in having a good relationship with God. Ba'al Shem Tov also said that depression was something that was negative and only altered the communication that is needed between Jews and the Creator.

    | Profile | History | Beliefs | Main Communities | Women in Hasidism | Links | Bibliography


    IV. Main Hasidim Communities

      Lubavitch

      The Lubavitcher movement is known as Chabad , an acronym for Hokhmah, Binah, Da'at -- wisdom, understanding, and knowledge 38 . This philosophy was created by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Ladi (1745-1813), the first Chabad-Lubavitcher Rebbe. Lubavitch is concerned with uplifting Jewish consciousness throughout the world. The mission of Lubavitcher Hasidim is to renew the commitment to the laws of the Torah in those who have neglected it 39 . Lubavitch is the only present-day court that seeks out other Jews in order to preserve their Jewish heritage 40 .

      Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, is the seventh Lubavitcher Rebbe since Rabbi Shneur Zalman 41 . Since 1950 after succeeding his father-in-law as Rebbe, he has concentrated on training young leaders to revitalize Jewish communities throughout the world.

      The majority of Lubavitcher live in Crown Heights, a middle-class neighborhood in Brooklyn, New York. A Lubavitch mainsion is located at 770 Eastern Parkway. The old mansion houses the yeshivah, the shul (synagogue), the official library, and the Rebbe's offices. An apartment building adjacent to it contains the educational center and publishing offices for Lubavitch 42 .

      Satmar

      Satmar is the most traditional type of Hasidism. It was among the first to take on the challenges faced by Hasidim who found themselves in New York instead of Europe 43 . .

      Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum had held the center stage for Hasidic life from his youth at the turn of the century in Hungary. He first attracted followers in 1904, soon after the death of his father. Joel's older brother, Rabbi Chaim Hirsch, succeeded their father as the Rebbe and chief rabbi in Sziget. Sziget was one of the Hasidic dynasties 44 . Joel Teitelbaum eventually left Sziget to become the leader of a congregation, Satu-Mare. The Satu-Mare Jewish community of fifteen to twenty thousand included Hasidim, Misnagdim, and more modern Orthodox. Because of the diversity of power in the community there was a struggle to name Joel the chief Rabbi 45 . .

      He was determined to maintain contemporary Hasidic life like it was in the past and he rejected Zionism and secularism 46 . When he arrived to New York in 1947, he was sixty-one years old, and determined to change Chasidism in America 47 . His main purpose was to bring about a Torah-based way of life.

      Rabbi Friedman also saw an importance for education in the community. He concentrated his energy on creating a new yeshivah system, the United Talmudic Academy. In time the Hasidim created their own textbooks in English, but initially they utilized texts from the city system. The United Talmudic Academy soon had five thousand students, and with the population increasing daily, the promise of expansion was great for the future 48 .

      The Satmar educational system focused solely on religion, which was the goal of Rabbi Friedman. Advanced secular education, college, university, and professional training in science, medicine, and secular law, which were an accepted part of Jewish life, were not options for Hasidic students 49 . The United Talmudic Academy was able to transcend religion with education and was successful by Rabbi Friedman's philosophy and teachings.

      Lubavitch vs. Satmar

      Today, in Brooklyn, strife between the two leading Hasidic courts in America is very commonplace 50 . Their differences evolve around issues concerning the causes of the tragedy of the Second World War. Joel Teitelbaum, the Satmar Rebbe, declared the Holocaust had been punishment for the evils of Zionism. Menachem Mendel Schneerson, the Lubavitcher Rebbe, believed that "the tragedy of the Holocaust is an unanswerable question. There is no human rationale whatsoever that can explain such indescribable suffering" 51 .

      Their focus on beliefs are different as well. Satmar seeks its controlling vision exclusively in the past, while Lubavitch looks forward to the joy of spreading Yiddishkayt and educating fellow Jews. The two Hasidim communites also different in dress. Satmar Hasidim dress exactly like Orthodox garb in Hungary a century ago, while Lubavitcher Hasidim follow more contemporary style. The reason behind the different mode of dress is that Satmar is concerned with keeping a safe distance between themselves and nonbelievers 52 . The Lubavitch are eager to interact with secular Jews.

      Satmar and the Lubavitch have really opposing attitudes about Zionism and the State of Israel. While all Hasidim oppose the secular orientation paramount in Israel, the most zealous scorn the very existence of the new state.

      Animosity between Hasidic courts heightens when courts decide to moderate their feuds with the government. Different Hasidim communities (especially Satmar and Lubavitch) did not agree on the adherence to religious law and the control of community life, which was the basis of disagreement for some Hasidim communities 53 .

      | Profile | History | Beliefs | Main Communities | Women in Hasidism | Links | Bibliography



      V. Women in Hasidism

      The social division between the sexes begins early in childhood and lasts throughout life. Modesty of the Hasidic girl is protected from the age of three by long stockings, long sleeves, and high-necked blouses 54 . In the Hasidic hierarchy of values, women are accorded less importance than men. As a result, education is considerably different for hasidic girls than for boys. As the hasidim do not regard the intellect of girls to be equal to that of the boys, it is considered sufficient if they learn about the Bible, the religious holidays, and the dietary laws 55 .

      Also, young hasidic women are carefully shielded from boys from their early years until marriage. Matters relating to sex are never discussed. There is no preparation for the bodily changes that take place at puberty, nor is there much exchange between mother and daughter concerning marital relations 56 .

      Women's education extends at least through high school and a few attend college; some take jobs in business concerns or factories before marriage. There are no career women, but after marriage a woman may work until pregnancy ends her outside remunerative activities 57 .

      Marriage and Family Life

      Men are the religious and political leaders of the community. Women care for the children and maintain the purity of the marriage and the household 58 . Women help raise funds for the needy, and look in on the sick, shop, and cook meals for them. They light the Shabbes candles and prepare the house for the holy days 59 .

      A curtain or a woven wooden lattice shields the women from the men's sight. On holy days some of the women congregate behind the lattice to pray and to watch the activities on the main floor of the besmedresh. In the social, as well as the relgious spheres, men and women remain apart 60 .

      Usually, the Hasidic young man and young woman marry into families much like their own. A Hasidic marriage does not have the tension between fulfillment of career aspirations and family needs that is commonplace in nonreligious marriages 61 . A woman's lower station in the religious sphere is considered to be balanced by the respect they receive for their role in the household. The well-matched couple are able to establish an enduring and happy marriage 62 .

      | Profile | History | Beliefs | Main Communities | Women in Hasidism | Links | Bibliography



      Links to Hasidism Web Sites

        Hasidism
        This site offers a lot of information concerning Hasidism. Everything from why and how Hasidism was formed. This site also includes a biography of Ba'al Shem Tov and followers.
        http://http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/363_Transp/Orthodoxy/Hasidism.html

        Hasidic Teachings
        Complete listing of teachings taught to Hasidim. A list of over 63 topics conscerning Hasidc life and worship is on this site. This is an excellent source!
        http://www.breslov.org/teachings.html

        FAQ on Hasidism
        A list of frequently asked questions concerning Hasidism and the Hasidic lifestyle.
        http://pinenet.com/~rooster/hasid1.html

        Stories of Ba'al Shem Tov
        This is a site quoting Hasidism directly from Ba'al Shem Tov. This site can help in understanding Ba'al Shem Tov's teaching for Hasidism.
        http://www.totalb.com/~mikeg/rel/hasidism/baal_shem.html

        A Life Apart: Hasidism in America
        This is by far the best site on Hasidism. It contains a lot of information on the history of Hasidism along with the lifestyle, and contemporary issues concerning the Hasidim.
        http://www.pbs.org/alifeapart/index.html

        Web Resources for Hasidism
        This is a college professor's page with a lot of links.
        http://www.philo.ucdavis.edu/~bruce/RST23/STDNTPAGES/jacob.html

        A Guide to Chabad Literature
        A lot of links on Chabad Hasidism. This site includes an art gallery, movies, clip excerpts, and literature on Chabad Hasidism.
        http://www.kesser.org

        A Page from the Babylonian Talmud
        A standard printed Talmud page.
        http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/TalmudPage.html

        The Jewish Yellow Web
        The Jewish Yellow Page allows you to look up all the Jewish pages on the World Wide Web. Pages are derived from the United States, Israel, and Europe.
        http://www.yellowweb.co.il/

        New World Hasidism
        Popular links on this site inlude Jewish organizations, Jewish publications, Jewish youth and student organizations, and even a listing of Jewish singles! Features include a newsletter, survey, and information on hot topics around the world concerning Judaism.
        http://www.nerdworld.com/users/dstein/nw266.html

        A Lengthy List of Jewish Links
        This site has hundreds of links. The index includes topics such as Jewish literature, philosophy, and psychology. Geneology and Jewish publications is also included along with a Jewish search tool on the site as well.
        http://www.mcs.net/%7Egrossman/jewish.html

        Short Biography on Martin Buber
        Martin Buber was a philosopher, storyteller, and scholar of Hasidism.
        http://www.emanuelnyc.org/bulletin/archive/34.html/

        The Jewish Student On-line Research Center
        Short explanation of Hasidism and how it came about.
        http://www.us-israel.org/jsource/Judaism/Hasidism.html

        The Seeker's Guide: Judaism
        Informative site on Lubavitch Hasidism. Includes information on worship, scriptures, and practices and behavioral standards. Very extensive site with addresses to the main Lubavitch organization in New York.
        http://www.atlanticus.com/seeker/judaism/lubavitch.html

        Selected Bibliography on Kabbalah and Jewish Mysticism
        Very good listing of books pertaining to Hasidism, Kabbalah, and Contemporary Mysticism.
        http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/RelS_365/Kabbalah_Guide.html

        Glossary of Jewish Terms
        Very to-the-point glossary of Hasidic terminology.
        http://www.digiserve.com/mystic/Jewish/glossary.html

        Breslov on the Internet
        An extensive site on the message of the Breslov Chassidus movement, founded by Rabbi Nachman of Breslov.
        http://www.breslov.com/

        Kabbalah FAQ
        Provides a brief introduction to the Kabbalah by answering questions to help understand what the Kabbalah is all about and how it was created. The site also gives links to additional information.
        http://www.ecauldron.com/kabbalah.html

        Judaism
        An extensive dateline of Judaism. A good site for historical references.
        http://www.crystalinks.com/judaism.html

      | Profile | History | Beliefs | Main Communities | Women in Hasidism | Links | Bibliography


      V. Bibliography

        Belcove-Shalin, Janet. 1995.
        New World Hasidism: Ethnographic Studies of Hasidic Jews in America. New York: State University of New York Press.

        Buber, Martin. 1960.
        The Origin and Meaning of Hasidism. New York: Horizon Press.

        Buber, Martin. 1958.
        Hasidism Modern Man. New York: Horizon Press.

        Danzger, Herbert. 1989.
        Returning to Tradition: The Contemporary Revival of Orthodox Judaism. New Haven: Yale University Press.

        Dresner, Samuel. 1985.
        The Circle of the Ba'al Shem Tov: Studies in Hasidism. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

        Davidman, Lynn. 1991.
        Tradition in a Rootless World: Women Turn to Orthodox Judaism. Berkeley: University of California Press.

        Eisenburg, Robert. 1995
        Boychicks in the Hood: Travels in the Hasidic Underworld. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers.

        Heschel, Abraham. 1985.
        The Circle of the Ba'al Shem Tov. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

        Lam, Norman. 1999.
        The Religious Thoughts of Hasidism. New Jersey: The Michael Scharf Publication Trust of Yeshiva University Press.

        Mintz, Jerome. 1992.
        Hasidic People: A Place in the New World. Massachusetts, Harvard University Press.

        Mintz, Jerome. 1968.
        Legends of Hasidism: An Introduction to Hasidic Culture and Oral Tradition in the New World. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

        Rabinowicz, Harry. 1988.
        Hasidism: The Movement and its Masters. Northvale, Jason Aronson Inc.

        Rabinowicz, Tzvi. 1996.
        The Encyclopedia of Hasidism. New Jersey: Jason Aronson Inc.

        Rapaport-Albert, Ada. 1996.
        Hasidism Reappriaised. London: The Littman Library of Jewish Civilization.

        Rosman, Moshe. 1996.
        Founder of Hasidism: A Quest for the Historical Ba'al Shem Tov. Berkeley: University of California Press.

        Rotenberg, Mordechai. 1983.
        Dialogue with Deviance: The Hasidic Ethic and the Theory of Social Contraction. Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues.

      | Profile | History | Beliefs | Main Communities | Women in Hasidism | Links | Bibliography


      Footnotes

        1. Eisenberg, Robert. Boychicks in the Hood: Travels in the Hasidic Underground. p2
        2. Eisenberg, Robert. Boychicks in the Hood: Travels in the Hasidic Underground. p2
        3. Eisenberg, Robert. Boychicks in the Hood: Travels in the Hasidic Underground. p2
        4. Hasidism http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/363_Transp/Orthodoxy/Hasidism.htmlp1
        5. Hasidism http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/363_Transp/Orthodoxy/Hasidism.htmlp1
        6. A Life Apart: Hasidism in America http://www.pbs.org/alifeapart/intro_6.htmlp1
        7. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p27
        8. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p27
        9. Hasidism http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/363_Transp/Orthodoxy/Hasidism.htmlp1
        10. Hasidism http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/363_Transp/Orthodoxy/Hasidism.htmlp1
        11. Rosman, Moshe. Founder of Hasidism: A Quest for the Historical Ba'al Shem Tov. p13
        12. Rosman, Moshe. Founder of Hasidism: A Quest for the Historical Ba'al Shem Tov. p13
        13. A Life Apart: Hasidism in America http://www.pbs.org/alifeapart/intro_6.htmlp2
        14. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p9
        15. Eisenberg, Robert. Boychicks in the Hood: Travels in the Hasidic Underground. p2
        16. Hasidism http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/363_Transp/Orthodoxy/Hasidism.htmlp3
        17. Hasidism http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/363_Transp/Orthodoxy/Hasidism.htmlp3
        18. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p10
        19. A Life Apart: Hasidism in America http://www.pbs.org/alifeapart/intro_6.htmlp2
        20. A Life Apart: Hasidism in America http://www.pbs.org/alifeapart/intro_6.htmlp1
        21. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p10
        22. Belcove-Shalin. New World Hasidim: Ethnographic Studies of Hasidic Jews. p9
        23. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p10
        24. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p11
        25. Hasidism http://www.acs.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/363_Transp/Orthodoxy/Hasidism.htmlp3
        26. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p11
        27. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p11
        28. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p11
        29. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p13
        30. FAQ http://pinenet.com/~rooster/hasid1.htmlp6
        31. FAQ http://pinenet.com/~rooster/hasid1.htmlp7
        32. Eisenberg, Robert. Boychicks in the Hood: Travels in the Hasidic Underground. p4
        33. Buber, Martin. The Origin and Meaning of Hasidism. p24
        34. Buber, Martin. The Origin and Meaning of Hasidism. p26
        35. Rabinowicz, Harry. Hasidism: The Movement and its Masters. p33
        36. Rabinowicz, Harry. Hasidism: The Movement and its Masters. p33
        37. Rabinowicz, Harry. Hasidism: The Movement and its Masters. p34
        38. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p44
        39. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p43
        40. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p14
        41. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p44
        42. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p43
        43. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p31
        44. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p28
        45. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p28
        46. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p28
        47. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p29
        48. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p32
        49. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p32
        50. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p51
        51. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p51
        52. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p51
        53. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p51
        54. Mintz, Jerome. Legends of the Hasidim . p 82
        55. Mintz, Jerome. Legends of the Hasidim . p 83
        56. Mintz, Jerome. Legends of the Hasidim . p 83
        57. Mintz, Jerome. Legends of the Hasidim . p 85
        58. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p66
        59. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p66
        60. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p66
        61. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p66
        62. Mintz, Jerome. Hasidic People: A Place in the New World . p67

      | Profile | History | Beliefs | Main Communities | Women in Hasidism | Links | Bibliography


      Created by Andrea Hardison
      For Soc 452: Sociology of Religious Movements
      Spring Term, 2000
      University of Virginia
      Thanks to Melissa Marks whose earlier page on this site provided
      guidance in the creation of this version. Click here to view Ms. Marks' archived page.
      Last modified: 07/20/01