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Bulgaria Geography 1999

    Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey

    Geographic coordinates: 43 00 N, 25 00 E

    Map references: Europe

    total: 110,910 sq km
    land: 110,550 sq km
    water: 360 sq km

    Area—comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee

    Land boundaries:
    total: 1,808 km
    border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km (all with Serbia), Turkey 240 km

    Coastline: 354 km

    Maritime claims:
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    territorial sea: 12 nm

    Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

    Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

    Elevation extremes:
    lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
    highest point: Musala 2,925 m

    Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

    Land use:
    arable land: 37%
    permanent crops: 2%
    permanent pastures: 16%
    forests and woodland: 35%
    other: 10% (1993 est.)

    Irrigated land: 12,370 sq km (1993 est.)

    Natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides

    Environment—current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes

    Environment—international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

    Geography—note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

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Revised 1-Mar-99
Copyright © 1999 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)