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Egypt Government 1999

    Country name:
    conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
    conventional short form: Egypt
    local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
    local short form: Misr
    former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)

    Data code: EG

    Government type: republic

    Capital: Cairo

    Administrative divisions: 26 governorates (muhafazat, singular—muhafazah); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina', Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj

    Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK)

    National holiday: Anniversary of the Revolution, 23 July (1952)

    Constitution: 11 September 1971

    Legal system: based on English common law, Islamic law, and Napoleonic codes; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions); accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

    Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory

    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK (since 14 October 1981)
    head of government: Prime Minister Kamal Ahmed El-GANZOURI (since 4 January 1996)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections: president nominated by the People's Assembly for a six-year term, the nomination must then be validated by a national, popular referendum; national referendum last held 4 October 1993 (next to be held NA October 1999); prime minister appointed by the president
    election results: national referendum validated President MUBARAK's nomination by the People's Assembly to a third term

    Legislative branch: bicameral system consists of the People's Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b (454 seats; 444 elected by popular vote, 10 appointed by the president; members serve five-year terms) and the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura—which functions only in a consultative role (264 seats; 176 elected by popular vote, 88 appointed by the president; members serve NA-year terms)
    elections: People's Assembly—last held 29 November 1995 (next to be held NA 2000); Advisory Council—last held 7 June 1995 (next to be held NA)
    election results: People's Assembly—percent of vote by party—NDP 72%, independents 25%, opposition 3%; seats by party—NDP 317, independents 114, NWP 6, NPUG 5, Nasserist Arab Democratic Party 1, Liberals 1; Advisory Council—percent of vote by party—NDP 99%, independents 1%; seats by party—NA

    Judicial branch: Supreme Constitutional Court

    Political parties and leaders: National Democratic Party or NDP [President Mohammed Hosni MUBARAK, leader] is the dominant party; legal opposition parties are as follows: New Wafd Party or NWP [Fu'ad SIRAJ AL-DIN]; Socialist Labor Party or SLP [Ibrahim SHUKRI]; National Progressive Unionist Grouping or NPUG [Khalid MUHI AL-DIN]; Socialist Liberal Party [Mustafa Kamal MURAD]; Democratic Unionist Party [Mohammed 'Abd-al-Mun'im TURK]; Umma Party [Ahmad al-SABAHI]; Misr al-Fatah Party (Young Egypt Party) [leader NA]; Nasserist Arab Democratic Party [Dia' al-din DAWUD]; Democratic Peoples' Party [Anwar AFIFI]; The Greens Party [Kamal KIRAH]; Social Justice Party [Muhammad 'ABDAL-'AL[
    note: formation of political parties must be approved by government

    Political pressure groups and leaders: despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood constitutes MUBARAK's potentially most significant political opposition; MUBARAK tolerated limited political activity by the Brotherhood for his first two terms, but has moved more aggressively in the past two years to block its influence; trade unions and professional associations are officially sanctioned

    International organization participation: ABEDA, ACC, ACCT (associate), AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, BSEC (observer), CAEU, CCC, EBRD, ECA, ESCWA, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURCA, MINURSO, MONUA, NAM, OAPEC, OAS (observer), OAU, OIC, OSCE (partner), PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNOMSIL, UNPREDEP, UNRWA, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed MAHER al-Sayed
    chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
    FAX: [1] (202) 244-4319, 5131
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, New York, and San Francisco

    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel C. KURTZER
    embassy: (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo
    mailing address: Unit 64900, APO AE 09839-4900
    telephone: [20] (2) 3557371
    FAX: [20] (2) 3573200

    Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with the national emblem (a shield superimposed on a golden eagle facing the hoist side above a scroll bearing the name of the country in Arabic) centered in the white band; similar to the flag of Yemen, which has a plain white band; also similar to the flag of Syria that has two green stars and to the flag of Iraq, which has three green stars (plus an Arabic inscription) in a horizontal line centered in the white band

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    Revised 1-Mar-99
    Copyright © 1999 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)