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Estonia Geography 1999

    Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia

    Geographic coordinates: 59 00 N, 26 00 E

    Map references: Europe

    total: 45,226 sq km
    land: 43,211 sq km
    water: 2,015 sq km
    note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

    Area—comparative: slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined

    Land boundaries:
    total: 633 km
    border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km

    Coastline: 3,794 km

    Maritime claims:
    exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states
    territorial sea: 12 nm

    Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

    Terrain: marshy, lowlands

    Elevation extremes:
    lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
    highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

    Natural resources: shale oil (kukersite), peat, phosphorite, amber, cambrian blue clay, limestone, dolomite

    Land use:
    arable land: 25%
    permanent crops: 0%
    permanent pastures: 11%
    forests and woodland: 44%
    other: 20% (1996 est.)

    Irrigated land: 110 sq km (1993 est.)

    Natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring

    Environment—current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at former Soviet military bases; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas are heavily affected by organic waste; coastal sea water is polluted in many locations

    Environment—international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

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Revised 1-Mar-99
Copyright © 1999 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)