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Germany Geography

    Location: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark

    Geographic coordinates: 51 00 N, 9 00 E

    Map references: Europe

    Area:
    total: 356,910 sq km
    land: 349,520 sq km
    water: 7,390 sq km
    note: includes the formerly separate Federal Republic of Germany, the German Democratic Republic, and Berlin, following formal unification on 3 October 1990

    Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

    Land boundaries:
    total: 3,621 km
    border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km

    Coastline: 2,389 km

    Maritime claims:
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    territorial sea: 12 nm

    Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity

    Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

    Elevation extremes:
    lowest point: Freepsum Lake -2 m
    highest point: Zugspitze 2,962 m

    Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel

    Land use:
    arable land: 33%
    permanent crops: 1%
    permanent pastures: 15%
    forests and woodland: 31%
    other: 20% (1993 est.)

    Irrigated land: 4,750 sq km (1993 est.)

    Natural hazards: flooding

    Environment—current issues: emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries and lead emissions from vehicle exhausts (the result of continued use of leaded fuels) contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal

    Environment—international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

    Geography—note: strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea

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Revised 1-Mar-99
Copyright © 1999 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)