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Pakistan Government

    Country name:
    conventional long form: Islamic Republic of Pakistan
    conventional short form: Pakistan
    former: West Pakistan

    Data code: PK

    Government type: federal republic

    Capital: Islamabad

    Administrative divisions: 4 provinces, 1 territory*, and 1 capital territory**; Balochistan, Federally Administered Tribal Areas*, Islamabad Capital Territory**, North-West Frontier, Punjab, Sindh
    note: the Pakistani-administered portion of the disputed Jammu and Kashmir region includes Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas

    Independence: 14 August 1947 (from UK)

    National holiday: Pakistan Day, 23 March (1956) (proclamation of the republic)

    Constitution: 10 April 1973, suspended 5 July 1977, restored with amendments 30 December 1985

    Legal system: based on English common law with provisions to accommodate Pakistan's status as an Islamic state; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

    Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal; separate electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for non-Muslims

    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Mohammad Rafiq TARAR (since 31 December 1997)
    head of government: Prime Minister Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF (since 17 February 1997)
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister
    elections: president elected by Parliament for a five-year term; election last held 31 December 1997 (next to be held no later than 1 January 2003); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually elected prime minister by the National Assembly; election last held 3 February 1997 (next to be held NA February 2002)
    election results: Mohammad Rafiq TARAR elected president; percent of Parliament and provincial vote—NA; Mohammad Nawaz SHARIF elected prime minister; percent of National Assembly vote—NA

    Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Majlis-e-Shoora consists of the Senate (87 seats; members indirectly elected by provincial assemblies to serve six-year terms; one-third of the members up for election every two years) and the National Assembly (217 seats—10 represent non-Muslims; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: Senate—last held 12 March 1997 (next to be held NA March 1999); National Assembly—last held 3 February 1997 (next to be held NA February 2002)
    election results: Senate—percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party—PML/N 30, PPP 17, ANP 7, MQM/A 6, JWP 5, BNP 4, JUI/F 2, PML/J 2, BNM/M 1, PKMAP 1, TJP 1, independents 6, vacant 5; National Assembly—percent of vote by party—NA; seats by party—PML/N 137, PPP 18, MQM/A 12, ANP 10, BNP 3, JWP 2, JUI/F 2, PPP/SB 1, NPP 1, independents 21, minorities 10

    Judicial branch: Supreme Court, judicial chiefs are appointed by the president; Federal Islamic (Shari'a) Court

    Political parties and leaders:
    government: Pakistan Muslim League, Nawaz Sharif faction or PML/N [Nawaz SHARIF]; Balochistan National Movement/Mengal Group or BNM/M [Sardar Akhtar MENGAL]; Jamiat-al-Hadith or JAH [leader NA]; Jamhoori Watan Party or JWP [Akbar Khan BUGTI]; Pakistan People's Party/Shaheed Bhutto or PPP/SB [Ghinva BHUTTO]; Baluch National Party or BNP [leader NA]
    opposition: Pakistan People's Party or PPP [Benazir BHUTTO]; Pakistan Muslim League, Junejo faction or PML/J [Hamid Nasir CHATTHA]; National People's Party or NPP [Ghulam Mustapha JATOI]; Pakhtun Khwa Milli Awami Party or PKMAP [Mahmood Khan ACHAKZAI]; Balochistan National Movement/Hayee Group or BNM/H [Dr. HAYEE Baluch]; Pakhtun Quami Party or PKQP [Mohammed AFZAL Khan]; Awami National Party or ANP [Wali KHAN]; Mutahida Qaumi Movement, Altaf faction or MQM/A [Altaf HUSSAIN]
    frequently shifting: Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Niazi faction or JUP/NI [leader NA]; Pakistan Muslim League, Functional Group or PML/F [Pir PAGARO]; Pakistan National Party or PNP [leader NA]; Milli Yakjheti Council or MYC is an umbrella organization which includes Jamaat-i-Islami or JI [Qazi Hussain AHMED], Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam, Sami-ul-Haq faction or JUI/S, Tehrik-I-Jafria Pakistan or TJP [Allama Sajid NAQVI], and Jamiat Ulema-i-Pakistan, Noorani faction or JUP/NO
    note: political alliances in Pakistan can shift frequently; subsequent to the election Jamiat Ulema-i-Islami, Fazlur Rehman group or JUI/F was disbanded

    Political pressure groups and leaders: military remains important political force; ulema (clergy), landowners, industrialists, and small merchants also influential

    International organization participation: AsDB, C, CCC, CP, ECO, ESCAP, FAO, G-19, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MINURSO, MONUA, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMOP, UNOMIG, UNOMIL, UNOMSIL, UNPREDEP, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Riaz Hussain KHOKHAR
    chancery: 2315 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 939-6205
    FAX: [1] (202) 387-0484
    consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York

    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador William MILAM
    embassy: Diplomatic Enclave, Ramna 5, Islamabad
    mailing address: P. O. Box 1048, Unit 62200, APO AE 09812-2200
    telephone: [92] (51) 826161 through 826179
    FAX: [92] (51) 276427
    consulate(s) general: Karachi
    consulate(s): Lahore, Peshawar

    Flag description: green with a vertical white band (symbolizing the role of religious minorities) on the hoist side; a large white crescent and star are centered in the green field; the crescent, star, and color green are traditional symbols of Islam

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Revised 1-Mar-99
Copyright © 1999 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)