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    Iran Geography 1997

      Location Middle East, bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the CaspianSea, between Iraq and Pakistan

      Geographic coordinates 32 00 N, 53 00 E

      Map references Middle East

      total: 1.648 million sq km
      land: 1.636 million sq km
      water: 12,000 sq km

      Area - comparative slightly larger than Alaska

      Land boundaries
      total: 5,440 km
      border countries: Afghanistan 936 km, Armenia 35 km, Azerbaijan-proper 432 km, Azerbaijan-Naxcivanexclave 179 km, Iraq 1,458 km, Pakistan 909 km, Turkey 499 km, Turkmenistan992 km

      Coastline 2,440 km
      note: Iran also borders the Caspian Sea (740 km)

      Maritime claims
      contiguous zone: 24 nm
      continental shelf: natural prolongation
      exclusive economic zone: bilateral agreements, or median lines in the Persian Gulf
      territorial sea : 12 nm

      Climate mostly arid or semiarid, subtropical along Caspian coast

      Terrain rugged, mountainous rim; high, central basin with deserts, mountains;small, discontinuous plains along both coasts

      Elevation extremes
      lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
      highest point : Qolleh-ye Damavand 5,671 m

      Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, coal, chromium, copper, iron ore, lead, manganese,zinc, sulfur

      Land use
      arable land : 10%
      permanent crops: 1%
      permanent pastures : 27%
      forests and woodland: 7%
      other: 55% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land 94,000 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards periodic droughts, floods; dust storms, sandstorms; earthquakes alongthe Western border

      Environment - current issues air pollution, especially in urban areas, from vehicle emissions, refineryoperations, and industrial effluents; deforestation; overgrazing; desertification;oil pollution in the Persian Gulf; inadequate supplies of potable water

      Environment - international agreements
      party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes,Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified : Desertification, Environmental Modification, Law of the Sea, MarineLife Conservation

      NOTE: The information regarding Iran on this page is re-published from the 1997 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Iran Geography 1997 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Iran Geography 1997 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 06-Mar-02
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