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    Bulgaria Geography 2000

      Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Romania and Turkey

      Geographic coordinates: 43 00 N, 25 00 E

      Map references: Europe

      total: 110,910 sq km
      land: 110,550 sq km
      water: 360 sq km

      Area - comparative: slightly larger than Tennessee

      Land boundaries:
      total: 1,808 km
      border countries: Greece 494 km, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 148 km, Romania 608 km, Serbia and Montenegro 318 km (all with Serbia), Turkey 240 km

      Coastline: 354 km

      Maritime claims:
      contiguous zone: 24 nm
      exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
      territorial sea: 12 nm

      Climate: temperate; cold, damp winters; hot, dry summers

      Terrain: mostly mountains with lowlands in north and southeast

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
      highest point: Musala 2,925 m

      Natural resources: bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, coal, timber, arable land

      Land use:
      arable land: 43%
      permanent crops: 2%
      permanent pastures: 14%
      forests and woodland: 38%
      other: 3% (1999 est.)

      Irrigated land: 12,370 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards: earthquakes, landslides

      Environment - current issues: air pollution from industrial emissions; rivers polluted from raw sewage, heavy metals, detergents; deforestation; forest damage from air pollution and resulting acid rain; soil contamination from heavy metals from metallurgical plants and industrial wastes

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

      Geography - note: strategic location near Turkish Straits; controls key land routes from Europe to Middle East and Asia

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    Revised 01-Nov-00
    Copyright © 2000 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)