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    Iraq Geography 2000

      Location: Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait

      Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 44 00 E

      Map references: Middle East

      total: 437,072 sq km
      land: 432,162 sq km
      water: 4,910 sq km

      Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of Idaho

      Land boundaries:
      total: 3,631 km
      border countries: Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 181 km, Kuwait 242 km, Saudi Arabia 814 km, Syria 605 km, Turkey 331 km

      Coastline: 58 km

      Maritime claims:
      continental shelf: not specified
      territorial sea: 12 nm

      Climate: mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers; northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experience cold winters with occasionally heavy snows that melt in early spring, sometimes causing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq

      Terrain: mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in south with large flooded areas; mountains along borders with Iran and Turkey

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
      highest point: Haji Ibrahim 3,600 m

      Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur

      Land use:
      arable land: 12%
      permanent crops: 0%
      permanent pastures: 9%
      forests and woodland: 0%
      other: 79% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land: 25,500 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards: dust storms, sandstorms, floods

      Environment - current issues: government water control projects have drained most of the inhabited marsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streams and rivers; a once sizable population of Shi'a Muslims, who have inhabited these areas for thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destruction of the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations; inadequate supplies of potable water; development of Tigris-Euphrates Rivers system contingent upon agreements with upstream riparian Turkey; air and water pollution; soil degradation (salination) and erosion; desertification

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
      signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification

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    Revised 01-Nov-00
    Copyright © 2000 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)