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    Israel Geography 2000

      Location: Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon

      Geographic coordinates: 31 30 N, 34 45 E

      Map references: Middle East

      total: 20,770 sq km
      land: 20,330 sq km
      water: 440 sq km

      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

      Land boundaries:
      total: 1,006 km
      border countries: Egypt 255 km, Gaza Strip 51 km, Jordan 238 km, Lebanon 79 km, Syria 76 km, West Bank 307 km

      Coastline: 273 km

      Maritime claims:
      continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
      territorial sea: 12 nm

      Climate: temperate; hot and dry in southern and eastern desert areas

      Terrain: Negev desert in the south; low coastal plain; central mountains; Jordan Rift Valley

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Dead Sea -408 m
      highest point: Har Meron 1,208 m

      Natural resources: copper, phosphates, bromide, potash, clay, sand, sulfur, asphalt, manganese, small amounts of natural gas and crude oil

      Land use:
      arable land: 17%
      permanent crops: 4%
      permanent pastures: 7%
      forests and woodland: 6%
      other: 66% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land: 1,800 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards: sandstorms may occur during spring and summer

      Environment - current issues: limited arable land and natural fresh water resources pose serious constraints; desertification; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; groundwater pollution from industrial and domestic waste, chemical fertilizers, and pesticides

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation

      Geography - note: there are 231 Israeli settlements and civilian land use sites in the West Bank, 42 in the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, 24 in the Gaza Strip, and 29 in East Jerusalem (August 1999 est.)

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    Revised 01-Nov-00
    Copyright © 2000 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)