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    Somalia Geography 2000

      Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia

      Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 49 00 E

      Map references: Africa

      total: 637,657 sq km
      land: 627,337 sq km
      water: 10,320 sq km

      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

      Land boundaries:
      total: 2,366 km
      border countries: Djibouti 58 km, Ethiopia 1,626 km, Kenya 682 km

      Coastline: 3,025 km

      Maritime claims:
      territorial sea: 200 nm

      Climate: principally desert; December to February - northeast monsoon, moderate temperatures in north and very hot in south; May to October - southwest monsoon, torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons

      Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
      highest point: Shimbiris 2,416 m

      Natural resources: uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt

      Land use:
      arable land: 2%
      permanent crops: 0%
      permanent pastures: 69%
      forests and woodland: 26%
      other: 3% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land: 1,800 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season

      Environment - current issues: famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Endangered Species, Law of the Sea
      signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban

      Geography - note: strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal

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    Revised 01-Nov-00
    Copyright © 2000 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)