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    Vietnam Econom�a 2000

      Econom�a - descripci�n: Vietnam is a poor, densely populated country that has had to recover from the ravages of war, the loss of financial support from the old Soviet Bloc, and the rigidities of a centrally planned economy. Substantial progress was achieved from 1986 to 1996 in moving forward from an extremely low starting point - growth averaged around 9% per year from 1993 to 1997. The 1997 Asian financial crisis highlighted the problems existing in the Vietnamese economy but, rather than prompting reform, reaffirmed the government's belief that shifting to a market oriented economy leads to disaster. GDP growth of 8.5% in 1997 fell to 4% in 1998 and rose slightly to an estimated 4.8% in 1999. These numbers masked some major difficulties that are emerging in economic performance. Many domestic industries, including coal, cement, steel, and paper, have reported large stockpiles of inventory and tough competition from more efficient foreign producers. Foreign direct investment has fallen dramatically, from $8.3 billion in 1996 to about $1.6 billion in 1999. Meanwhile, Vietnamese authorities have slowed implementation of the structural reforms needed to revitalize the economy and produce more competitive, export-driven industries. Privatization of state enterprises remains bogged down in political controversy, while the country's dynamic private sector is denied both financing and access to markets. Reform of the banking sector - considered one of the riskiest in the world - is proceeding slowly, raising concerns that the country will be unable to tap sufficient domestic savings to finance growth. Administrative and legal barriers are also causing costly delays for foreign investors and are raising similar doubts about Vietnam's ability to attract additional foreign capital.

      Producto Bruto Interno (PBI): purchasing power parity - $143.1 billion (1999 est.)

      PBI - Indice de Incremento real: 4.8% (1999 est.)

      PBI - por capital: purchasing power parity - $1,850 (1999 est.)

      PBI - Composici�n por Sector:
      agriculture: 26%
      industry: 33%
      services: 41% (1998 est.)

      Poblaci�n bajo linea de pobertad: 37% (1998 est.)

      Ingreso en casa o porcentage de consumci�n:
      lowest 10%: 3.5%
      highest 10%: 29% (1993)

      Indice de Inflaci�n (precios del consumidor): 4% (1999 est.)

      Fuerza Laboral: 38.2 million (1998 est.)

      Fuerza Laboral - por ocupaci�n: agriculture 67%, industry and services 33% (1997 est.)

      Indice de desempleo: 25% (1995 est.)

      Presupuesto:
      revenues: $5.6 billion
      expenditures: $6 billion, including capital expenditures of $1.7 billion (1996 est.)

      Industrias: food processing, garments, shoes, machine building, mining, cement, chemical fertilizer, glass, tires, oil, coal, steel, paper

      Industrial production growth rate: 10.3% (1999 est.)

      Electricidad - Producci�n: 20.62 billion kWh (1998)

      Electricidad - producci�n por fuente:
      fossil fuel: 12.95%
      hydro: 87.05%
      nuclear: 0%
      other: 0% (1998)

      Electricidad - consumci�n: 19.177 billion kWh (1998)

      Electricidad - exportaciones: 0 kWh (1998)

      Electricidad - importaciones: 0 kWh (1998)

      Agricultura - productos: paddy rice, corn, potatoes, rubber, soybeans, coffee, tea, bananas; poultry, pigs; fish

      Exportaciones: $11.5 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

      Exporationes - comodidades: crude oil, marine products, rice, coffee, rubber, tea, garments, shoes

      Exportaciones - socios: Japan, Germany, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong, France, South Korea, US, China

      Importaciones: $11.6 billion (f.o.b., 1999 est.)

      Importaciones - comodidades: machinery and equipment, petroleum products, fertilizer, steel products, raw cotton, grain, cement, motorcycles

      Importaciones - socios: Singapore, South Korea, Japan, France, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Thailand, Sweden

      Deuda - externa: $7.3 billion Western countries; $4.5 billion CEMA debts primarily to Russia; $9 billion to $18 billion nonconvertible debt (former CEMA, Iraq, Iran)

      Ayuda economica - recipiente: $2 billion in credits and grants pledged by international donors for 1999 and again for 2000

      Moneda: 1 new dong (D) = 100 xu

      Indice de intercambio: new dong (D) per US$1 - 14,020 (January 2000), 13,900 (December 1998), 11,100 (December 1996), 11,193 (1995 average), 11,000 (October 1994), 10,800 (November 1993)

      A�o Fiscal: calendar year

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