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Afghanistan Geography 1999

    Location: Southern Asia, north and west of Pakistan, east of Iran

    Geographic coordinates: 33 00 N, 65 00 E

    Map references: Asia

    total: 647,500 sq km
    land: 647,500 sq km
    water: 0 sq km

    Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Texas

    Land boundaries:
    total: 5,529 km
    border countries: China 76 km, Iran 936 km, Pakistan 2,430 km, Tajikistan 1,206 km, Turkmenistan 744 km, Uzbekistan 137 km

    Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

    Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

    Climate: arid to semiarid; cold winters and hot summers

    Terrain: mostly rugged mountains; plains in north and southwest

    Elevation extremes:
    lowest point: Amu Darya 258 m
    highest point: Nowshak 7,485 m

    Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, precious and semiprecious stones

    Land use:
    arable land: 12%
    permanent crops: 0%
    permanent pastures: 46%
    forests and woodland: 3%
    other: 39% (1993 est.)

    Irrigated land: 30,000 sq km (1993 est.)

    Natural hazards: damaging earthquakes occur in Hindu Kush mountains; flooding

    Environment—current issues: soil degradation; overgrazing; deforestation (much of the remaining forests are being cut down for fuel and building materials); desertification

    Environment—international agreements:
    party to: Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban
    signed, but not ratified: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation

    Geography—note: landlocked

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    Revised 1-Mar-99
    Copyright © 1999 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)