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Bosnia and Herzegovina Geography 1999

    Location: Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia

    Geographic coordinates: 44 00 N, 18 00 E

    Map references: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Europe

    total: 51,233 sq km
    land: 51,233 sq km
    water: 0 sq km

    Area—comparative: slightly smaller than West Virginia

    Land boundaries:
    total: 1,459 km
    border countries: Croatia 932 km, Serbia and Montenegro 527 km (312 km with Serbia, 215 km with Montenegro)

    Coastline: 20 km

    Maritime claims: NA

    Climate: hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast

    Terrain: mountains and valleys

    Elevation extremes:
    lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
    highest point: Maglic 2,386 m

    Natural resources: coal, iron, bauxite, manganese, forests, copper, chromium, lead, zinc

    Land use:
    arable land: 14%
    permanent crops: 5%
    permanent pastures: 20%
    forests and woodland: 39%
    other: 22% (1993 est.)

    Irrigated land: 20 sq km (1993 est.)

    Natural hazards: frequent and destructive earthquakes

    Environment—current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; widespread casualties, water shortages, and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife

    Environment—international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

    Geography—note: within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Muslim/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska [RS] (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority

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Revised 1-Mar-99
Copyright © 1999 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)