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Colombia Geography 1999

    Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama

    Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 72 00 W

    Map references: South America, Central America and the Caribbean

    total: 1,138,910 sq km
    land: 1,038,700 sq km
    water: 100,210 sq km
    note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank

    Area—comparative: slightly less than three times the size of Montana

    Land boundaries:
    total: 7,408 km
    border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 2,900 km, Venezuela 2,050 km

    Coastline: 3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)

    Maritime claims:
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    territorial sea: 12 nm

    Climate: tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands

    Terrain: flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains

    Elevation extremes:
    lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
    highest point: Nevado del Huila 5,750 m

    Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds

    Land use:
    arable land: 4%
    permanent crops: 1%
    permanent pastures: 39%
    forests and woodland: 48%
    other: 8% (1993 est.)

    Irrigated land: 5,300 sq km (1993 est.)

    Natural hazards: highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts

    Environment—current issues: deforestation; soil damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions

    Environment—international agreements:
    party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94
    signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping

    Geography—note: only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea

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Revised 1-Mar-99
Copyright © 1999 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)