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Finland Geography 1999

    Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

    Geographic coordinates: 64 00 N, 26 00 E

    Map references: Europe

    total: 337,030 sq km
    land: 305,470 sq km
    water: 31,560 sq km

    Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

    Land boundaries:
    total: 2,628 km
    border countries: Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km

    Coastline: 1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

    Maritime claims:
    contiguous zone: 6 nm
    continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
    exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
    territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland—3 nm)

    Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

    Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills

    Elevation extremes:
    lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
    highest point: Haltiatunturi 1,328 m

    Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

    Land use:
    arable land: 8%
    permanent crops: NA%
    permanent pastures: NA%
    forests and woodland: 76%
    other: 16% (1993 est.)

    Irrigated land: 640 sq km (1993 est.)

    Natural hazards: NA

    Environment—current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

    Environment—international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
    signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

    Geography—note: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

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Revised 1-Mar-99
Copyright © 1999 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)