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Mongolia Geography 1999

    Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia

    Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E

    Map references: Asia

    total: 1.565 million sq km
    land: 1.565 million sq km
    water: 0 sq km

    Area—comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

    Land boundaries:
    total: 8,114 km
    border countries: China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km

    Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

    Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

    Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

    Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast

    Elevation extremes:
    lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
    highest point: Tavan Bogd Uul 4,374 m

    Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold

    Land use:
    arable land: 1%
    permanent crops: 0%
    permanent pastures: 80%
    forests and woodland: 9%
    other: 10% (1993 est.)

    Irrigated land: 800 sq km (1993 est.)

    Natural hazards: dust storms can occur in the spring; grassland fires

    Environment—current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal and the concentration of factories in Ulaanbaatar have severely polluted the air; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification; mining activities have also had a deleterious effect on the environment

    Environment—international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

    Geography—note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

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Revised 1-Mar-99
Copyright © 1999 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)