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Turkey Geography 1999

    Location: southwestern Asia (that part west of the Bosporus is sometimes included with Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria

    Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 35 00 E

    Map references: Middle East

    total: 780,580 sq km
    land: 770,760 sq km
    water: 9,820 sq km

    Area—comparative: slightly larger than Texas

    Land boundaries:
    total: 2,627 km
    border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 331 km, Syria 822 km

    Coastline: 7,200 km

    Maritime claims:
    exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
    territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea

    Climate: temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior

    Terrain: mostly mountains; narrow coastal plain; high central plateau (Anatolia)

    Elevation extremes:
    lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
    highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m

    Natural resources: antimony, coal, chromium, mercury, copper, borate, sulfur, iron ore

    Land use:
    arable land: 32%
    permanent crops: 4%
    permanent pastures: 16%
    forests and woodland: 26%
    other: 22% (1993 est.)

    Irrigated land: 36,740 sq km (1993 est.)

    Natural hazards: very severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van

    Environment—current issues: water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic

    Environment—international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Environmental Modification

    Geography—note: strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas

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    Revised 1-Mar-99
    Copyright © 1999 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)