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Turkmenistan Geography 1999

    Location: Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan

    Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 60 00 E

    Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

    total: 488,100 sq km
    land: 488,100 sq km
    water: 0 sq km

    Area—comparative: slightly larger than California

    Land boundaries:
    total: 3,736 km
    border countries: Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km

    Coastline: 0 km
    note: Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)

    Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

    Climate: subtropical desert

    Terrain: flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west

    Elevation extremes:
    lowest point: Vpadina Akchanaya -81 m (note—Sarygamysh Koli is a lake in north eastern Turkmenistan whose water levels fluctuate widely; at its shallowest, its level is -110 m; it is presently at -60 m, 20 m above Vpadina Akchanaya)
    highest point: Ayrybaba 3,139 m

    Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulfur, salt

    Land use:
    arable land: 3%
    permanent crops: 0%
    permanent pastures: 63%
    forests and woodland: 8%
    other: 26% (1993 est.)

    Irrigated land: 13,000 sq km (1993 est.)

    Natural hazards: NA

    Environment—current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salination, water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification

    Environment—international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

    Geography—note: landlocked

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    Revised 1-Mar-99
    Copyright © 1999 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)