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    Germany Geography 1997

      Location Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, betweenthe Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark

      Geographic coordinates 51 00 N, 9 00 E

      Map references Europe

      total: 356,910 sq km
      land : 349,520 sq km
      water: 7,390 sq km
      note: includes the formerly separate Federal Republic of Germany, the GermanDemocratic Republic, and Berlin, following formal unification on 3 October 1990

      Area - comparative slightly smaller than Montana

      Land boundaries
      total: 3,621 km
      border countries : Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km, Denmark 68 km,France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland334 km

      Coastline 2,389 km

      Maritime claims
      continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
      exclusive economic zone : 200 nm
      territorial sea: 12 nm

      Climate temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasionalwarm, tropical foehn wind; high relative humidity

      Terrain lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

      Elevation extremes
      lowest point : Freepsum Lake -2 m
      highest point: Zugspitze 2,962 m

      Natural resources iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas,salt, nickel

      Land use
      arable land : 33%
      permanent crops: 1%
      permanent pastures: 15%
      forests and woodland: 31%
      other : 20% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land 4,750 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards NA

      Environment - current issues emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries and lead emissionsfrom vehicle exhausts (the result of continued use of leaded fuels) contributeto air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damagingforests; heavy pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrialeffluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal

      Environment - international agreements
      party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol,Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, EndangeredSpecies, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, MarineDumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, TropicalTimber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified : Air Pollution-Sulphur 94

      Geography - note strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance tothe Baltic Sea

      NOTE: The information regarding Germany on this page is re-published from the 1997 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Germany Geography 1997 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Germany Geography 1997 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 06-Mar-02
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