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    Iraq Geography 1997

      Location Middle East, bordering the Persian Gulf, between Iran and Kuwait

      Geographic coordinates 33 00 N, 44 00 E

      Map references Middle East

      total: 437,072 sq km
      land: 432,162 sq km
      water : 4,910 sq km

      Area - comparative slightly more than twice the size of Idaho

      Land boundaries
      total: 3,631 km
      border countries : Iran 1,458 km, Jordan 181 km, Kuwait 242 km, Saudi Arabia 814 km, Syria605 km, Turkey 331 km

      Coastline 58 km

      Maritime claims
      continental shelf: not specified
      territorial sea: 12 nm

      Climate mostly desert; mild to cool winters with dry, hot, cloudless summers;northern mountainous regions along Iranian and Turkish borders experiencecold winters with occasionally heavy snows which melt in early spring, sometimescausing extensive flooding in central and southern Iraq

      Terrain mostly broad plains; reedy marshes along Iranian border in south; mountainsalong borders with Iran and Turkey

      Elevation extremes
      lowest point: Persian Gulf 0 m
      highest point: Gundah Zhur 3,608 m

      Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, phosphates, sulfur

      Land use
      arable land: 12%
      permanent crops: 0%
      permanent pastures: 9%
      forests and woodland : 0%
      other: 79% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land 25,500 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards dust storms, sandstorms, floods

      Environment - current issues government water control projects have drained most of the inhabitedmarsh areas east of An Nasiriyah by drying up or diverting the feeder streamsand rivers; a once sizable population of Shi'a Muslims, who have inhabitedthese areas for thousands of years, has been displaced; furthermore, the destructionof the natural habitat poses serious threats to the area's wildlife populations;inadequate supplies of potable water; development of Tigris-Euphrates Riverssystem contingent upon agreements with upstream riparian Turkey; air and waterpollution; soil degradation (salinization) and erosion; desertification

      Environment - international agreements
      party to: Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban
      signed, but not ratified : Environmental Modification

      NOTE: The information regarding Iraq on this page is re-published from the 1997 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Iraq Geography 1997 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Iraq Geography 1997 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 06-Mar-02
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