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    Russia Geography 1997

      Location Northern Asia (that part west of the Urals is sometimes included withEurope), bordering the Arctic Ocean, between Europe and the North PacificOcean

      Geographic coordinates 60 00 N, 100 00 E

      Map references Asia

      total: 17,075,200 sq km
      land: 16,995,800 sq km
      water: 79,400 sq km

      Area - comparative slightly less than 1.8 times the size of the US

      Land boundaries
      total : 19,917 km
      border countries: Azerbaijan 284 km, Belarus 959 km, China (southeast) 3,605 km, China(south) 40 km, Estonia 294 km, Finland 1,313 km, Georgia 723 km, Kazakstan6,846 km, North Korea 19 km, Latvia 217 km, Lithuania (Kaliningrad Oblast) 227 km, Mongolia 3,441 km, Norway 167 km, Poland (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206km, Ukraine 1,576 km

      Coastline 37,653 km

      Maritime claims
      continental shelf : 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
      exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
      territorial sea: 12 nm

      Climate ranges from steppes in the south through humid continental in much ofEuropean Russia; subarctic in Siberia to tundra climate in the polar north;winters vary from cool along Black Sea coast to frigid in Siberia; summersvary from warm in the steppes to cool along Arctic coast

      Terrain broad plain with low hills west of Urals; vast coniferous forest andtundra in Siberia; uplands and mountains along southern border regions

      Elevation extremes
      lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
      highest point: Mount El'brus 5,633 m

      Natural resources wide natural resource base including major deposits of oil, naturalgas, coal, and many strategic minerals, timber
      note: formidable obstacles of climate, terrain, and distance hinder exploitationof natural resources

      Land use
      arable land : 8%
      permanent crops: 0%
      permanent pastures: 4%
      forests and woodland: 46%
      other: 42% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land 40,000 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards permafrost over much of Siberia is a major impediment to development;volcanic activity in the Kuril Islands; volcanoes and earthquakes on the KamchatkaPeninsula

      Environment - current issues air pollution from heavy industry, emissions of coal-fired electricplants, and transportation in major cities; industrial and agricultural pollutionof inland waterways and sea coasts; deforestation; soil erosion; soil contaminationfrom improper application of agricultural chemicals; scattered areas of sometimesintense radioactive contamination

      Environment - international agreements
      party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur85, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, EnvironmentalModification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone LayerProtection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of theSea

      Geography - note largest country in the world in terms of area but unfavorably locatedin relation to major sea lanes of the world; despite its size, much of thecountry lacks proper soils and climates (either too cold or too dry) for agriculture

      NOTE: The information regarding Russia on this page is re-published from the 1997 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Russia Geography 1997 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Russia Geography 1997 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    Revised 06-Mar-02
    Copyright © 2002 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)