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Peru Government 1999

    Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Peru
    conventional short form: Peru
    local long form: Republica del Peru
    local short form: Peru

    Data code: PE

    Government type: republic

    Capital: Lima

    Administrative divisions: 24 departments (departamentos, singular—departamento) and 1 constitutional province* (provincia constitucional); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao*, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
    note: the 1979 constitution mandated the creation of regions (regiones, singular—region) to function eventually as autonomous economic and administrative entities; so far, 12 regions have been constituted from 23 of the 24 departments—Amazonas (from Loreto), Andres Avelino Caceres (from Huanuco, Pasco, Junin), Arequipa (from Arequipa), Chavin (from Ancash), Grau (from Tumbes, Piura), Inca (from Cusco, Madre de Dios, Apurimac), La Libertad (from La Libertad), Los Libertadores-Huari (from Ica, Ayacucho, Huancavelica), Mariategui (from Moquegua, Tacna, Puno), Nor Oriental del Maranon (from Lambayeque, Cajamarca, Amazonas), San Martin (from San Martin), Ucayali (from Ucayali); formation of another region has been delayed by the reluctance of the constitutional province of Callao to merge with the department of Lima; because of inadequate funding from the central government and organizational and political difficulties, the regions have yet to assume major responsibilities; the 1993 constitution retains the regions but limits their authority; the 1993 constitution also reaffirms the roles of departmental and municipal governments

    Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)

    National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)

    Constitution: 31 December 1993

    Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction

    Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal

    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28 July 1990); note—the president is both the chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Alberto Kenyo FUJIMORI Fujimori (since 28 July 1990); note—the president is both the chief of state and head of government
    note: Prime Minister Victor JOYWAY (since 4 January 1999) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president
    cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held NA 2000)
    election results: President FUJIMORI reelected; percent of vote—Alberto FUJIMORI 64.42%, Javier PEREZ de CUELLAR 21.80%, Mercedes CABANILLAS 4.11%, other 9.67%

    Legislative branch: unicameral Democratic Constituent Congress or Congresso Constituyente Democratico (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
    elections: last held 9 April 1995 (next to be held NA April 2000)
    election results: percent of vote by party—C90/NM 52.1%, UPP 14%, other parties 33.9%; seats by party—C90/NM 67, UPP 17, APRA 8, FIM 6, CODE-Pais Posible 5, AP 4, PPC 3, Renovation 3, IU 2, OBRAS 2, other parties 3

    Judicial branch: Supreme Court of Justice (Corte Suprema de Justicia), judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary

    Political parties and leaders: Change 90-New Majority or C90/NM [Alberto FUJIMORI]; Union for Peru or UPP [Javier PEREZ de CUELLAR]; American Popular Revolutionary Alliance or APRA [Luis ALVA Castro]; Independent Moralizing Front or FIM [Fernando OLIVERA Vega]; Democratic Coordinator or CODE-Pais Posible [Jose BARBA Caballero and Alejandro TOLEDO]; Popular Action Party or AP [Juan DIAZ Leon]; Popular Christian Party or PPC [Luis BEDOYA Reyes]; Renovation Party [Rafael REY Rey]; Civic Works Movement or OBRAS [Ricardo BELMONT]; United Left or IU [leader NA]; Independent Agrarian Movement or MIA [leader NA]

    Political pressure groups and leaders: leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Oscar RAMIREZ Durand (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]

    International organization participation: APEC, CAN, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-11, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Ricardo V. LUNA MENDOZA
    chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
    FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
    consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco

    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Dennis C. JETT
    embassy: Avenida Encalada, Cuadra 17, Monterrico, Lima
    mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
    telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000
    FAX: [51] (1) 434-3037

    Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath

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Revised 1-Mar-99
Copyright © 1999 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)