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Sudan Government 1999

    Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan
    conventional short form: Sudan
    local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan
    local short form: As-Sudan
    former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

    Data code: SU

    Government type: transitional—previously ruling military junta; presidential and National Assembly elections held in March 1996; new constitution drafted by Presidential Committee, went into effect on 30 June 1998 after being approved in nationwide referendum

    Capital: Khartoum

    Administrative divisions: 26 states (wilayat, singular—wilayah); A'ali an Nil, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrat, Al Jazirah, Al Khartum, Al Qadarif, Al Wahdah, An Nil al Abyad, An Nil al Azraq, Ash Shamaliyah, Bahr al Jabal, Gharb al Istiwa'iyah, Gharb Bahr al Ghazal, Gharb Darfur, Gharb Kurdufan, Janub Darfur, Janub Kurdufan, Junqali, Kassala, Nahr an Nil, Shamal Bahr al Ghazal, Shamal Darfur, Shamal Kurdufan, Sharq al Istiwa'iyah, Sinnar, Warab

    Independence: 1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)

    National holiday: Independence Day, 1 January (1956)

    Constitution: 12 April 1973, suspended following coup of 6 April 1985; interim constitution of 10 October 1985 suspended following coup of 30 June 1989; new constitution implemented on 30 June 1998

    Legal system: based on English common law and Islamic law; as of 20 January 1991, the now defunct Revolutionary Command Council imposed Islamic law in the northern states; Islamic law applies to all residents of the northern states regardless of their religion; some separate religious courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations

    Suffrage: NA years of age; universal, but noncompulsory

    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Lt. General Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 February 1998), Second Vice President (Police) Maj. General George KONGOR AROP (since NA February 1994); note—the president is both the chief of state and head of
    head of government: President Lt. General Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); First Vice President Ali Uthman Muhammad TAHA (since 17 February 1998), Second Vice President (Police) Maj. General George KONGOR AROP (since NA February 1994); note—the president is both the chief of state and head of
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president; note—President al-BASHIR's government is dominated by members of Sudan's National Islamic Front (NIF), a fundamentalist political organization formed from the Muslim Brotherhood in 1986; in 1998, the NIF created the National Congress as its legal front; the National Congress/NIF dominates much of Khartoum's overall domestic and foreign policies; President al-BASHIR named a new cabinet on 20 April 1996 which includes members of the National Islamic Front, serving and retired military officers, and civilian technocrats; on 8 March 1998, he reshuffled the cabinet and brought in several former rebel and opposition members as ministers
    elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 6-17 March 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
    election results: Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR elected president; percent of vote—Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR 75.7%; note—about forty other candidates ran for president
    note: al-BASHIR, as chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation (RCC), assumed power on 30 June 1989 and served concurrently as chief of state, chairman of the RCC, prime minister, and minister of defense until 16 October 1993 when he was appointed president by the RCC; upon its dissolution on 16 October 1993, the RCC's executive and legislative powers were devolved to the president and the Transitional National Assembly (TNA), Sudan's appointed legislative body, which has since been replaced by the National Assembly which was elected in March 1996

    Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (400 seats; 275 elected by popular vote, 125 elected by a supraassembly of interest groups known as the National Congress)
    elections: last held 6-17 March 1996 (next to be held NA 2001)
    election results: NA; the March 1996 elections were held on a nonparty basis; parties are banned in the new National Assembly

    Judicial branch: Supreme Court; Special Revolutionary Courts

    Political parties and leaders: political parties were banned following 30 June 1989 coup, however, political "associations" are allowed under a new law drafted in 1998 and implemented on 1 January 1999 and include—National Congress [Umar Hasan Ahmad al-BASHIR]

    Political pressure groups and leaders: National Islamic Front or NIF [Hasan al-TURABI] (banned, but the National Congress operates as its legal front)

    International organization participation: ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AL, AMF, CAEU, CCC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ITU, NAM, OAU, OIC, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNU, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO

    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Mahdi Ibrahim MAHAMMAD (recalled to Khartoum in August 1998)
    chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
    telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565
    FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406

    Diplomatic representation from the US: US officials at the US Embassy in Khartoum were moved for security reasons in February 1996 and have been relocated to the US Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Cairo, Egypt; they visit Khartoum monthly, but the Sudanese Government has not allowed such visits since August 1998; the US Embassy in Khartoum (located on Sharia Abdul Latif Avenue; mailing address—P.O. Box 699, Khartoum; APO AE 09829; telephone—[249] (11) 774611 or 774700; FAX—[249] (11) 774137) is kept open by local employees; the US Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya is located temporarily in the USAID Building at The Crescent, Parkland, Nairobi; mailing address—P.O. Box 30137, Box 21A, Unit 64100, APO AE 09831; telephone—[254] (2) 751613; FAX—[254] (2) 743204; the US Embassy in Cairo, Egypt is located at (North Gate) 8, Kamel El-Din Salah Street, Garden City, Cairo; mailing address—Unit 64900, APO AE 09839-4900; telephone—[20] (2) 3557371; FAX—[20] (2) 3573200

    Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black with a green isosceles triangle based on the hoist side

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    Revised 1-Mar-99
    Copyright © 1999 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)