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    Brazil Geography 2000

      Location: Eastern South America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean

      Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 55 00 W

      Map references: South America

      Area:
      total: 8,511,965 sq km
      land: 8,456,510 sq km
      water: 55,455 sq km
      note: includes Arquipelago de Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Ilha da Trindade, Ilhas Martin Vaz, and Penedos de Sao Pedro e Sao Paulo

      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than the US

      Land boundaries:
      total: 14,691 km
      border countries: Argentina 1,224 km, Bolivia 3,400 km, Colombia 1,643 km, French Guiana 673 km, Guyana 1,119 km, Paraguay 1,290 km, Peru 1,560 km, Suriname 597 km, Uruguay 985 km, Venezuela 2,200 km

      Coastline: 7,491 km

      Maritime claims:
      contiguous zone: 24 nm
      continental shelf: 200 nm
      exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
      territorial sea: 12 nm

      Climate: mostly tropical, but temperate in south

      Terrain: mostly flat to rolling lowlands in north; some plains, hills, mountains, and narrow coastal belt

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
      highest point: Pico da Neblina 3,014 m

      Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber

      Land use:
      arable land: 5%
      permanent crops: 1%
      permanent pastures: 22%
      forests and woodland: 58%
      other: 14% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land: 28,000 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast; floods and occasional frost in south

      Environment - current issues: deforestation in Amazon Basin destroys the habitat and endangers the existence of a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; air and water pollution in Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities
      note: President CARDOSO in September 1999 signed into force an environmental crime bill which for the first time defines pollution and deforestation as crimes punishable by stiff fines and jail sentences

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
      signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

      Geography - note: largest country in South America; shares common boundaries with every South American country except Chile and Ecuador

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    Revised 01-Nov-00
    Copyright © 2000 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)


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