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    Estonia Geography 2000

      Location: Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia

      Geographic coordinates: 59 00 N, 26 00 E

      Map references: Europe

      total: 45,226 sq km
      land: 43,211 sq km
      water: 2,015 sq km
      note: includes 1,520 islands in the Baltic Sea

      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Hampshire and Vermont combined

      Land boundaries:
      total: 633 km
      border countries: Latvia 339 km, Russia 294 km

      Coastline: 3,794 km

      Maritime claims:
      exclusive economic zone: limits fixed in coordination with neighboring states
      territorial sea: 12 nm

      Climate: maritime, wet, moderate winters, cool summers

      Terrain: marshy, lowlands

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
      highest point: Suur Munamagi 318 m

      Natural resources: shale oil (kukersite), peat, phosphorite, amber, cambrian blue clay, limestone, dolomite, arable land

      Land use:
      arable land: 25%
      permanent crops: 0%
      permanent pastures: 11%
      forests and woodland: 44%
      other: 20% (1996 est.)

      Irrigated land: 110 sq km (1996 est.)

      Natural hazards: flooding occurs frequently in the spring

      Environment - current issues: air heavily polluted with sulfur dioxide from oil-shale burning power plants in northeast; contamination of soil and groundwater with petroleum products, chemicals at former Soviet military bases; Estonia has more than 1,400 natural and manmade lakes, the smaller of which in agricultural areas are heavily affected by organic waste; coastal sea water is polluted in many locations

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ship Pollution, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

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    Revised 01-Nov-00
    Copyright © 2000 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)