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    Finland Geography 2000

      Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia

      Geographic coordinates: 64 00 N, 26 00 E

      Map references: Europe

      total: 337,030 sq km
      land: 305,470 sq km
      water: 31,560 sq km

      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

      Land boundaries:
      total: 2,628 km
      border countries: Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km

      Coastline: 1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)

      Maritime claims:
      contiguous zone: 6 nm
      continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
      exclusive fishing zone: 12 nm
      territorial sea: 12 nm (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 nm)

      Climate: cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes

      Terrain: mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
      highest point: Haltiatunturi 1,328 m

      Natural resources: timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver

      Land use:
      arable land: 8%
      permanent crops: 0%
      permanent pastures: 0%
      forests and woodland: 76%
      other: 16% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land: 640 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards: NA

      Environment - current issues: air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
      signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

      Geography - note: long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain

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    Revised 01-Nov-00
    Copyright © 2000 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)