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    Germany Geography 2000

      Location: Central Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, between the Netherlands and Poland, south of Denmark

      Geographic coordinates: 51 00 N, 9 00 E

      Map references: Europe

      Area:
      total: 357,021 sq km
      land: 349,223 sq km
      water: 7,798 sq km

      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Montana

      Land boundaries:
      total: 3,621 km
      border countries: Austria 784 km, Belgium 167 km, Czech Republic 646 km, Denmark 68 km, France 451 km, Luxembourg 138 km, Netherlands 577 km, Poland 456 km, Switzerland 334 km

      Coastline: 2,389 km

      Maritime claims:
      continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
      exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
      territorial sea: 12 nm

      Climate: temperate and marine; cool, cloudy, wet winters and summers; occasional warm foehn wind

      Terrain: lowlands in north, uplands in center, Bavarian Alps in south

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Freepsum Lake -2 m
      highest point: Zugspitze 2,963 m

      Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land

      Land use:
      arable land: 33%
      permanent crops: 1%
      permanent pastures: 15%
      forests and woodland: 31%
      other: 20% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land: 4,750 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards: flooding

      Environment - current issues: emissions from coal-burning utilities and industries contribute to air pollution; acid rain, resulting from sulfur dioxide emissions, is damaging forests; pollution in the Baltic Sea from raw sewage and industrial effluents from rivers in eastern Germany; hazardous waste disposal; government currently attempting to define mechanism for ending the use of nuclear power; government working to meet EU commitment to identify nature preservation areas in line with the EU's Flora, Fauna, and Habitat directive

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
      signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol

      Geography - note: strategic location on North European Plain and along the entrance to the Baltic Sea

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    Revised 01-Nov-00
    Copyright © 2000 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)


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