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    Madagascar Geography 2000

      Location: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique

      Geographic coordinates: 20 00 S, 47 00 E

      Map references: Africa

      total: 587,040 sq km
      land: 581,540 sq km
      water: 5,500 sq km

      Area - comparative: slightly less than twice the size of Arizona

      Land boundaries: 0 km

      Coastline: 4,828 km

      Maritime claims:
      contiguous zone: 24 nm
      continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m deep isobath
      exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
      territorial sea: 12 nm

      Climate: tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south

      Terrain: narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
      highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m

      Natural resources: graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower

      Land use:
      arable land: 4%
      permanent crops: 1%
      permanent pastures: 41%
      forests and woodland: 40%
      other: 14% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land: 10,870 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards: periodic cyclones

      Environment - current issues: soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several species of flora and fauna unique to the island are endangered

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea

      Geography - note: world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel

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    Revised 01-Nov-00
    Copyright © 2000 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)