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    Mongolia Geography 2000

      Location: Northern Asia, between China and Russia

      Geographic coordinates: 46 00 N, 105 00 E

      Map references: Asia

      total: 1.565 million sq km
      land: 1.565 million sq km
      water: 0 sq km

      Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska

      Land boundaries:
      total: 8,114 km
      border countries: China 4,673 km, Russia 3,441 km

      Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

      Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

      Climate: desert; continental (large daily and seasonal temperature ranges)

      Terrain: vast semidesert and desert plains; mountains in west and southwest; Gobi Desert in southeast

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Hoh Nuur 518 m
      highest point: Tavan Bogd Uul 4,374 m

      Natural resources: oil, coal, copper, molybdenum, tungsten, phosphates, tin, nickel, zinc, wolfram, fluorspar, gold

      Land use:
      arable land: 1%
      permanent crops: 0%
      permanent pastures: 80%
      forests and woodland: 9%
      other: 10% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land: 800 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards: dust storms can occur in the spring; grassland fires

      Environment - current issues: limited natural fresh water resources; policies of the former communist regime promoting rapid urbanization and industrial growth have raised concerns about their negative effects on the environment; the burning of soft coal in power plants and the lack of enforcement of environmental laws have severely polluted the air in Ulaanbaatar; deforestation, overgrazing, the converting of virgin land to agricultural production have increased soil erosion from wind and rain; desertification and mining activities have also had a deleterious effect on the environment

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
      signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

      Geography - note: landlocked; strategic location between China and Russia

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    Revised 01-Nov-00
    Copyright © 2000 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)