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    Venezuela Geography 2000

      Location: Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, between Colombia and Guyana

      Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 66 00 W

      Map references: South America, Central America and the Caribbean

      total: 912,050 sq km
      land: 882,050 sq km
      water: 30,000 sq km

      Area - comparative: slightly more than twice the size of California

      Land boundaries:
      total: 4,993 km
      border countries: Brazil 2,200 km, Colombia 2,050 km, Guyana 743 km

      Coastline: 2,800 km

      Maritime claims:
      contiguous zone: 15 nm
      continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
      exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
      territorial sea: 12 nm

      Climate: tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands

      Terrain: Andes Mountains and Maracaibo Lowlands in northwest; central plains (llanos); Guiana Highlands in southeast

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
      highest point: Pico Bolivar (La Columna) 5,007 m

      Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, bauxite, other minerals, hydropower, diamonds

      Land use:
      arable land: 4%
      permanent crops: 1%
      permanent pastures: 20%
      forests and woodland: 34%
      other: 41% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land: 1,900 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards: subject to floods, rockslides, mud slides; periodic droughts

      Environment - current issues: sewage pollution of Lago de Valencia; oil and urban pollution of Lago de Maracaibo; deforestation; soil degradation; urban and industrial pollution, especially along the Caribbean coast

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
      signed, but not ratified: Marine Dumping

      Geography - note: on major sea and air routes linking North and South America

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    Revised 01-Nov-00
    Copyright © 2000 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)