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    Turkmenist�n Econom�a 2000

      Econom�a - descripci�n: Turkmenistan is largely desert country with nomadic cattle raising, intensive agriculture in irrigated oases, and huge gas and oil resources. One-half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton, making it the world's tenth largest producer. It also possesses the world's fifth largest reserves of natural gas and substantial oil resources. Until the end of 1993, Turkmenistan had experienced less economic disruption than other former Soviet states because its economy received a boost from higher prices for oil and gas and a sharp increase in hard currency earnings. In 1994, Russia's refusal to export Turkmen gas to hard currency markets and mounting debts of its major customers in the former USSR for gas deliveries contributed to a sharp fall in industrial production and caused the budget to shift from a surplus to a slight deficit. With an authoritarian ex-communist regime in power and a tribally based social structure, Turkmenistan has taken a cautious approach to economic reform, hoping to use gas and cotton sales to sustain its inefficient economy. Privatization goals remain limited. Turkmenistan is working hard to open new gas export channels through Iran and Turkey to Europe, but these will take many years to realize. In 1998-99, Turkmenistan faced revenue shortfalls due to the continued lack of adequate export routes for natural gas and obligations on extensive short-term external debt. Prospects in the near future are discouraging because of widespread internal poverty and the burden of foreign debt. IMF assistance would seem to be necessary, yet the government is not as yet ready to accept IMF requirements. Turkmenistan's 1999 deal to ship 20 billion cubic meters (bcm) of natural gas through Russia's Gazprom will help alleviate the 2000 fiscal shortfall, but will not make up for the absence of meaningful progress in economic reform.

      Producto Bruto Interno (PBI): purchasing power parity - $7.7 billion (1999 est.)

      PBI - Indice de Incremento real: 9% (1999 est.)

      PBI - por capital: purchasing power parity - $1,800 (1999 est.)

      PBI - Composici�n por Sector:
      agriculture: 10%
      industry: 62%
      services: 28% (1997 est.)

      Poblaci�n bajo linea de pobertad: NA%

      Ingreso en casa o porcentage de consumci�n:
      lowest 10%: 2.7%
      highest 10%: 26.9% (1993)

      Indice de Inflaci�n (precios del consumidor): 30% (1999 est.)

      Fuerza Laboral: 2.34 million (1996)

      Fuerza Laboral - por ocupaci�n: agriculture and forestry 44%, industry and construction 19%, other 37% (1996)

      Indice de desempleo: NA%

      Presupuesto:
      revenues: $521 million
      expenditures: $548 million, including capital expenditures of $83 million (1996 est.)

      Industrias: natural gas, oil, petroleum products, textiles, food processing

      Industrial production growth rate: NA%

      Electricidad - Producci�n: 8.745 billion kWh (1998)

      Electricidad - producci�n por fuente:
      fossil fuel: 99.94%
      hydro: 0.06%
      nuclear: 0%
      other: 0% (1998)

      Electricidad - consumci�n: 5.453 billion kWh (1998)

      Electricidad - exportaciones: 2.74 billion kWh (1998)

      Electricidad - importaciones: 60 million kWh (1998)

      Agricultura - productos: cotton, grain; livestock

      Exportaciones: $1.1 billion (1999 est.)

      Exporationes - comodidades: oil and gas 55%, cotton 22% (1998)

      Exportaciones - socios: Iran, Turkey, Russia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan

      Importaciones: $1.25 billion (1999 est.)

      Importaciones - comodidades: machinery and equipment 45%, chemicals, foodstuffs (1998)

      Importaciones - socios: Ukraine, Turkey, Russia, Germany, US, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan

      Deuda - externa: $2.1 billion (1999 est.)

      Ayuda economica - recipiente: $27.2 million (1995)

      Moneda: 1 Turkmen manat (TMM) = 100 tenesi

      Indice de intercambio: Turkmen manats per US$1 - 5,200 (January 2000), 5,350 (January 1999), 4,070 (January 1997), 2,400 (January 1996)

      A�o Fiscal: calendar year

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