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Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Geography

    Location: Southeastern Europe, north of Greece

    Geographic coordinates: 41 50 N, 22 00 E

    Map references: Europe

    Area:
    total: 25,333 sq km
    land: 24,856 sq km
    water: 477 sq km

    Area—comparative: slightly larger than Vermont

    Land boundaries:
    total: 748 km
    border countries: Albania 151 km, Bulgaria 148 km, Greece 228 km, Serbia and Montenegro 221 km (all with Serbia)

    Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)

    Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

    Climate: warm, dry summers and autumns and relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall

    Terrain: mountainous territory covered with deep basins and valleys; three large lakes, each divided by a frontier line; country bisected by the Vardar River

    Elevation extremes:
    lowest point: Vardar River 50 m
    highest point: Golem Korab (Majae Korabit) 2,753 m

    Natural resources: chromium, lead, zinc, manganese, tungsten, nickel, low-grade iron ore, asbestos, sulfur, timber

    Land use:
    arable land: 24%
    permanent crops: 2%
    permanent pastures: 25%
    forests and woodland: 39%
    other: 10% (1993 est.)

    Irrigated land: 830 sq km (1993 est.)

    Natural hazards: high seismic risks

    Environment—current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants

    Environment—international agreements:
    party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

    Geography—note: landlocked; major transportation corridor from Western and Central Europe to Aegean Sea and Southern Europe to Western Europe

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Revised 1-Mar-99
Copyright © 1999 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)