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Pakistan Geography 1999

    Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Arabian Sea, between India on the east and Iran and Afghanistan on the west and China in the north

    Geographic coordinates: 30 00 N, 70 00 E

    Map references: Asia

    total: 803,940 sq km
    land: 778,720 sq km
    water: 25,220 sq km

    Area—comparative: slightly less than twice the size of California

    Land boundaries:
    total: 6,774 km
    border countries: Afghanistan 2,430 km, China 523 km, India 2,912 km, Iran 909 km

    Coastline: 1,046 km

    Maritime claims:
    contiguous zone: 24 nm
    continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
    exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
    territorial sea: 12 nm

    Climate: mostly hot, dry desert; temperate in northwest; arctic in north

    Terrain: flat Indus plain in east; mountains in north and northwest; Balochistan plateau in west

    Elevation extremes:
    lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
    highest point: K2 (Mt. Godwin-Austen) 8,611 m

    Natural resources: land, extensive natural gas reserves, limited petroleum, poor quality coal, iron ore, copper, salt, limestone

    Land use:
    arable land: 27%
    permanent crops: 1%
    permanent pastures: 6%
    forests and woodland: 5%
    other: 61% (1993 est.)

    Irrigated land: 171,100 sq km (1993 est.)

    Natural hazards: frequent earthquakes, occasionally severe especially in north and west; flooding along the Indus after heavy rains (July and August)

    Environment—current issues: water pollution from raw sewage, industrial wastes, and agricultural runoff; limited natural fresh water resources; a majority of the population does not have access to potable water; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification

    Environment—international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation

    Geography—note: controls Khyber Pass and Bolan Pass, traditional invasion routes between Central Asia and the Indian Subcontinent

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Revised 1-Mar-99
Copyright © 1999 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)