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    Turkmenistan Geography 1997
    https://photius.com/wfb1997/turkmenistan/turkmenistan_geography.html
    SOURCE: 1997 CIA WORLD FACTBOOK

      Location Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakstan

      Geographic coordinates 40 00 N, 60 00 E

      Map references Commonwealth of Independent States

      Area
      total : 488,100 sq km
      land: 488,100 sq km
      water: 0 sq km

      Area - comparative slightly larger than California

      Land boundaries
      total: 3,736 km
      border countries: Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621km

      Coastline 0 km
      note: Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)

      Maritime claims none (landlocked)

      Climate subtropical desert

      Terrain flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south;low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west

      Elevation extremes
      lowest point: Sarygamysh Koli -110 m
      highest point: Ayrybaba 3,139 m

      Natural resources petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulfur, salt

      Land use
      arable land: 3%
      permanent crops: 0%
      permanent pastures: 63%
      forests and woodland: 8%
      other: 26% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land 13,000 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards NA

      Environment - current issues contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides;salinization, water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; CaspianSea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya intoirrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea;desertification

      Environment - international agreements
      party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, OzoneLayer Protection
      signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

      Geography - note landlocked

      NOTE: The information regarding Turkmenistan on this page is re-published from the 1997 World Fact Book of the United States Central Intelligence Agency. No claims are made regarding the accuracy of Turkmenistan Geography 1997 information contained here. All suggestions for corrections of any errors about Turkmenistan Geography 1997 should be addressed to the CIA.

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    https://photius.com/wfb1997/turkmenistan/turkmenistan_geography.html

    Revised 06-Mar-02
    Copyright © 2002 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)


    ctr03/06/02