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    Turkmenistan Geography 2000

      Location: Central Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Kazakhstan

      Geographic coordinates: 40 00 N, 60 00 E

      Map references: Commonwealth of Independent States

      total: 488,100 sq km
      land: 488,100 sq km
      water: 0 sq km

      Area - comparative: slightly larger than California

      Land boundaries:
      total: 3,736 km
      border countries: Afghanistan 744 km, Iran 992 km, Kazakhstan 379 km, Uzbekistan 1,621 km

      Coastline: 0 km
      note: Turkmenistan borders the Caspian Sea (1,768 km)

      Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

      Climate: subtropical desert

      Terrain: flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes rising to mountains in the south; low mountains along border with Iran; borders Caspian Sea in west

      Elevation extremes:
      lowest point: Vpadina Akchanaya -81 m (note - Sarygamysh Koli is a lake in north eastern Turkmenistan whose water levels fluctuate widely; at its shallowest, its level is -110 m; it is presently at -60 m, 20 m above Vpadina Akchanaya)
      highest point: Ayrybaba 3,139 m

      Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, coal, sulfur, salt

      Land use:
      arable land: 3%
      permanent crops: 0%
      permanent pastures: 63%
      forests and woodland: 8%
      other: 26% (1993 est.)

      Irrigated land: 13,000 sq km (1993 est.)

      Natural hazards: NA

      Environment - current issues: contamination of soil and groundwater with agricultural chemicals, pesticides; salination, water-logging of soil due to poor irrigation methods; Caspian Sea pollution; diversion of a large share of the flow of the Amu Darya into irrigation contributes to that river's inability to replenish the Aral Sea; desertification

      Environment - international agreements:
      party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
      signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

      Geography - note: landlocked

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    Revised 01-Nov-00
    Copyright © 2000 Photius Coutsoukis (all rights reserved)